International Journal of Innovative Research in Physics (IJIIP)
(ISSN Number(Online) - 2687-7902)
(ISSN Number(Print) - 2689-484X)


Spectroscopic and analytical studies of lead mixed cadmium oxalate crystals

Ganavi A. S.1, Dharmaprakash S. M.1* Jagannatha N2Nagaraja K. P.2and Delma D’Souza2

11 Department of Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalore-574199.
2Post graduate department of Physics, FMKMC College (A constituent college of Mangalore University), Madikeri-571201.
E-mail ID: [email protected] , [email protected]
Page Number: 1-9

Lead mixed cadmium oxalate (LMCO) crystals were grown in oxalic acid impregnated silica hydro gel. Optimal growth condition was established by varying specific gravity of sodium meta silicate (SMS), gel pH, gel temperature and concentration of reactant solutions. The grown crystals were found to be transparent, hard and water insoluble. The LMCO crystals were characterized in succession by Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral technique, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Powder X-ray diffraction (P-XRD) and UV-visible spectroscopy. Occupation of lead (Pb2+) ions in the vacancies of cadmium (Cd2+) ions was confirmed by EDX. FTIR spectrum identified the presence of oxalate (C2O4) 2- ions and metal-oxygen linkage in the novel crystals. TG analysis betrayed the stable oxide state of LMCO crystals after decomposition. P-XRD pattern depicted the high crystallinity. Optical studies revealed the insulating behaviour of the grown crystals.
Keywords: EDX, FTIR, insulator, oxalate crystals.


Spectroscopic Studies of Gel Grown Barium Mixed Magnesium Oxalate Crystal

Mangala M Sanjeevannanavar1Jagannatha N.1,*

1P G Department of Physics, FMKMC College, A Constituent College of Mangalore University, Madikeri-571201, Kodagu, Karnataka, India
Email: [email protected]
Page Number: 10-15

Barium mixed Magnesium Oxalate (BMO) crystals were grown successfully by silica hydrogel technique. Crystals were optimized by various parameters. Grown crystals were studied using the spectroscopic techniques which included FESEM, EDAX, FTIR and Raman spectrometer. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) reveals morphology of BMO crystal. Characterization of Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX) shows the presence of Mg, Ba, O and carbon elements in the crystal. The presence of functional groups in the grown crystal was confirmed by Fourier Transmission Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer and Raman spectrometer..
Keywords: BMO, Crystal, FESEM, EDAX, FTIR and Raman spectrometer.


Growth, elemental analysis, thermal stability and identification of functional groups of intrinsic and manganese doped strontium tartrate pentahydrate single crystals

K.B. Reema1,2and N. Jagannatha1,*

1PG department of Physics, FMKMC College (A constituent college of Mangalore university), Madikeri-571201, Karnataka, India.
2Department of Physics, Maharani’s Science College for Women (Affiliated to Mysore University), Mysuru-570005, Karnataka, India.
Email: [email protected]
Page Number: 16-26

Single crystals of intrinsic strontium L(+) tartrate (IST) and manganese doped strontium L(+) tartrate (MnDST) are grown by single test tube gel diffusion technique. The growth parameters are tuned to obtain an optimum condition for growth. Elemental analysis of the grown crystals is made using Energy Dispersive Analysis by X-Rays (EDAX). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Raman techniques are used to identify various functional groups associated with the crystal lattice. Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) (in the range of 30-1030°C) is used to study the thermal stability of the grown crystals. The maximum sizes of IST and MnDST crystals of this study are 7.2×2.8×1.3 mm3 and 3.9×1.6×1.5 mm3 , respectively. The crystals are semitransparent and yellow in color. The lattices possess various functional groups identified through their vibrational structures in FTIR and Raman spectra. Intensities of Raman peaks in the case of doped crystals are observed to be more pronounced as compared to those of IST crystals. The crystals are observed to attain thermal stability in the oxide state above 980°C. While the IST crystal is found to possess a chemical formula: SrC4H4O6.5H2O with a molecular weight of 325.77, the doped MnDST crystal is found to bear a chemical formula: Sr0.9883Mn0.0117C4H4O6.5H2O with a molecular weight of 325.38 and a cationic distribution ratio: Sr2+:Mn2+=84.47:1. The thermal studies also confirm the pentahydrate nature of the crystal lattices. Keywords: DTA, FTIR, gel technique, Raman, TGA


Electrochemical Synthesis and Morphology Investigation with Respect to Parameters on Metal, Metaloxide Composite

Vanitha.C1,*and Kannusamy.R1

1Department of Electronics, PSG College of Arts & Science, Coimbatore-641014
Email: [email protected]
Page Number: 27-36

Fine tuning proper parametric condition is the key factor to attain the required morphology on synthesis process. Perfect synthesis task can pave strong foundation towards application part such as vertical oriented, uniformed hybrid one dimension nanostructures can lead fabrication of nano electronic devices. Nanostructures in the form of zero, one and two dimensions will selectively fulfil the design aspect of transition metal oxide based electrodes for energy devices and sensors. This research paper have been examined the impact of various synthesis parameters listed as template assisted deposition, change in electrode position, deposition potential and direct deposition on copper substrate with zinc nitrate hexahydrate salt in liquid form for constant precursor concentration. Synthesis done through electrochemical deposition method using two electrode electrochemical cell with copper substrate acts as working electrode, platinum as counter electrode, Polycarbonate membrane with 200nm pores as template, for characterization Scanning Electron Microscopy, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy techniques were used to obtain morphology analysis of the samples. Result revealed the morphology based on variation in synthesis parameter also shown limitation on template with random pores and narrow exposure of counter electrode. Scrutiny process of precursor concentration with respective characterization analysis of prior work was considered as reference for this work.
Keywords: : Synthesis, Template, Electrode potential, Electrode position, Morphology.


Opto-electromagnetics-dielectric impulses in gel grown manganese mixed cadmium oxalate crystalline materials

Nagaraja K. P.1,*, Delma D’Souza1and Ganavi A. S.1

1Department of Physics, FMKMC College (A constituent college of Mangalore University), Madikeri-571201
Email: [email protected]
Page Number: 37-47

Manganese mixed cadmium oxalate (MMCO) crystalline materials were grown from optimized oxalic acid reinforced silica hydro gel using single test tube gel diffusion technique. Novel MMCO crystals were hard, transparent, water insoluble and exhibited high corrosion resistance. Fore grounded crystals were characterized using spectroscopic and analytical techniques. MMCO crystals inborn with cationic distribution Cd2+:Mn2+ of 1.356:1 and functional units: O-H, C=O, C-O, C-C and Cd:Mn-O in the crystal armature. MMCO crystal constituted with a chemical formula Cd0.576Mn0.424(C2O4).3H2O, molecular weight of 230.108 and crystallizes in triclinic geometry. Optical studies reveal absorption in UV region and maximum transmittance in visible region. Electromagnetic and dielectric studies spotlighted the existence of displacement current density, dielectric constant of 59.94 and capacitance of 47.90pF. The new crystalline material ingrains an electrical resistivity of 0.342×107 Ωm and allows very feeble current (few nA) to flow through them. Indeed, due to spectrum of intrinsic characteristics, MMCO crystal materials find wide applications in material science and microelectronics.
Keywords: : absorption, crystal, dielectric, displacement, silica.


Comparative study of engineering aspects of fire brick and borosilicate glass block linings in design of reinforced concrete chimneys

Dhruv Patel1,*, Dr. Aanal Shah2and Mr. Rakesh Shah3, and Niyali Mukherjee1

1M. Tech student of Structural Engineering Design, Faculty of Technology, CEPT University, Ahmedabad, India
2 Professor and Acting Dean, Faculty of Technology, CEPT University, Ahmedabad, India
3 S3M Design Consultants LLP, Ahmedabad, India
Email: [email protected]
Page Number: 48-60

Tall chimney construction of has been possible with building technologies and also with good understanding of loads acting on them to determine its structural behaviour. The experience gained in the chimney construction and design over the years the now a-day challenge is to prevent the chimney shell and lining deterioration due to penetration of flue gases through cracks in the air space. Considering borosilicate blocks as a lining material, Chimneys have been designed. It has also been reported about repairing the deteriorated chimney by removing the conventional fire bricks and applying borosilicate block on the chimney shell. The engineering properties of both the lining materials are compared in this paper. Also, the analytical study has been done on 12 hypothetical chimneys with the temperature varying at 150o C and 200o C and 200m, 150m and 100m height to gauge the effectiveness borosilicate glass blocks in terms of temperature gradient, forces induced and material cost. The study shows that borosilicate block can be a suitable replacement of conventional fire bricks, used as lining for reinforced concrete chimneys, in terms of its application and its engineering properties that govern structural parameters.
Keywords: RCC chimney, Borosilicate glass block lining, Acid proof fire brick lining.


Temperature-dependent Pattern Formation in Drying Aqueous Droplets of Lysozyme

Anusuya Pal1, Amalesh Gope2,*and Germano S. Iannacchione.2

1 Order-Disorder Phenomena Laboratory, Department of Physics, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA, 01609, USA
2Department of English, Tezpur University, Tezpur, Assam, 784028, India
Email: l: [email protected]
Page Number: 37-47

Drying colloidal droplets have a wide range of applications from medical diagnostics to coatings for industries. This paper explores the effects of the substrate temperature (ranging from 25 to 55 Ԩ) and various initial concentrations (׎ (of 1 to 20 wt% of lysozyme in an aqueous solution on its drying and final dried film state using bright-field optical microscopy. The ׎ is divided into three regimes, ultra-concentrated (20 < ׎ ≥ 17 wt%), concentrated (17 < ׎ ≥ 9 wt%) and diluted (9 < ׎ ≥ 1 wt%). During the drying process, initially, the fluid front moves slowly and linearly inward followed by a fast, non-linear movement in both dilute and concentrated regimes. Increasing ׎ in these regimes finds that this movement in the later nonlinear region slows down as the front carries and deposits protein molecules until the supply in solution is exhausted. In the ultra-concentrated regime, the fluid front moves linearly throughout the drying process. The deposition of protein onto the surface by the fluid front creates the “coffee-ring” and increases with increasing ׎ .A dimple is observed in a central mound-structure, which grow with increase ׎ .As the temperature increases the drying rate increases, reducing the time for convective flow and the deposition of material at the fluid front. Interestingly, at (T, ׎) = (55 Ԩ, 20 wt%), the droplet forms the thickest film with supressed ring formation. The dimple diminishes in the ultra-concentrated regime, whereas it changes to an expanded spot in some samples of the diluted and concentrated regimes with elevated temperatures. Both initial concentration and substrate temperature leads to surface tension and temperature gradients across the droplet, affecting the final dried crack morphological patterns. This study provides insights into protein and protein-substrate interactions driven by temperature and concentration for biomedical and biosensing applications.
Keywords: : drying, droplet, lysozyme, morphology, patterns.


Calitropis Gigantean fiber as potential reinforcement for polymer composites-A review

Shikha Singh1,*, Umesh K. Dwivedi2and Satish Chandra Shukla3

1 Research scholar, Department of Chemical Engineering, Banasthali Vidyapeeth, Newai, India
2Associate professor, Dept. of Applied Physics, Amity University Rajasthan, Jaipur, India
3Associate professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, Banasthali Vidyapeeth, Newai, India
Email: : [email protected]
Page Number: 71-77

Calitropis Gigantea is an emerging staple fibre for polymer composites. The environmental friendly nature of this natural fibre has caught attention of the researchers worldwide. Recent trends and studies have reported the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of the CG reinforced polymer composites which indicate that the composites can be as proficient as other available options of composites materials. The development of CG composites can fulfil the dire need of green technology which is the demand of current situation. Few studies prove that the treated strands results in high strength of the composites in comparison to the untreated fibers. The treated fibers were found to be suitable for textile industry but the limitation of difficulty in dyeing due to high cellulose content still needs attention. Research shows that the higher amount of fibre loading in composites increases its flexural, tensile and compressive strength but the tribology of these composites is yet to be discovered more in future. The economic nature of CG fibre composites along with attractive specific properties makes it eye catchy in current scenario.
Keywords: :: Calitropis Gigantea, strand, reinforced polymer composites, flexural, treated fibre