Lead mixed cadmium oxalate (LMCO) crystals were grown in oxalic acid impregnated silica hydro gel.
Optimal growth condition was established by varying specific gravity of sodium meta silicate (SMS), gel
pH, gel temperature and concentration of reactant solutions. The grown crystals were found to be
transparent, hard and water insoluble. The LMCO crystals were characterized in succession by Energy
dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral technique,
Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Powder X-ray diffraction (P-XRD) and UV-visible spectroscopy.
Occupation of lead (Pb2+) ions in the vacancies of cadmium (Cd2+) ions was confirmed by EDX. FTIR
spectrum identified the presence of oxalate (C2O4)
2- ions and metal-oxygen linkage in the novel crystals. TG
analysis betrayed the stable oxide state of LMCO crystals after decomposition. P-XRD pattern depicted the
high crystallinity. Optical studies revealed the insulating behaviour of the grown crystals. Keywords: EDX, FTIR, insulator, oxalate crystals.
Barium mixed Magnesium Oxalate (BMO) crystals were grown successfully by silica hydrogel technique.
Crystals were optimized by various parameters. Grown crystals were studied using the spectroscopic
techniques which included FESEM, EDAX, FTIR and Raman spectrometer. Field Emission Scanning
Electron Microscope (FESEM) reveals morphology of BMO crystal. Characterization of Energy Dispersive
X-Ray Analysis (EDAX) shows the presence of Mg, Ba, O and carbon elements in the crystal. The presence
of functional groups in the grown crystal was confirmed by Fourier Transmission Infrared (FTIR)
spectrometer and Raman spectrometer.. Keywords: BMO, Crystal, FESEM, EDAX, FTIR and Raman spectrometer.
Single crystals of intrinsic strontium L(+) tartrate (IST) and manganese doped strontium L(+) tartrate
(MnDST) are grown by single test tube gel diffusion technique. The growth parameters are tuned to obtain
an optimum condition for growth. Elemental analysis of the grown crystals is made using Energy Dispersive
Analysis by X-Rays (EDAX). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Raman techniques are used to identify
various functional groups associated with the crystal lattice. Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) (in the
range of 30-1030°C) is used to study the thermal stability of the grown crystals. The maximum sizes of IST
and MnDST crystals of this study are 7.2×2.8×1.3 mm3
and 3.9×1.6×1.5 mm3
, respectively. The crystals are
semitransparent and yellow in color. The lattices possess various functional groups identified through their
vibrational structures in FTIR and Raman spectra. Intensities of Raman peaks in the case of doped crystals
are observed to be more pronounced as compared to those of IST crystals. The crystals are observed to attain
thermal stability in the oxide state above 980°C. While the IST crystal is found to possess a chemical
formula: SrC4H4O6.5H2O with a molecular weight of 325.77, the doped MnDST crystal is found to bear a
chemical formula: Sr0.9883Mn0.0117C4H4O6.5H2O with a molecular weight of 325.38 and a cationic distribution
ratio: Sr2+:Mn2+=84.47:1. The thermal studies also confirm the pentahydrate nature of the crystal lattices.
Keywords: DTA, FTIR, gel technique, Raman, TGA
Fine tuning proper parametric condition is the key factor to attain the required morphology on synthesis
process. Perfect synthesis task can pave strong foundation towards application part such as vertical oriented,
uniformed hybrid one dimension nanostructures can lead fabrication of nano electronic devices.
Nanostructures in the form of zero, one and two dimensions will selectively fulfil the design aspect of
transition metal oxide based electrodes for energy devices and sensors. This research paper have been
examined the impact of various synthesis parameters listed as template assisted deposition, change in
electrode position, deposition potential and direct deposition on copper substrate with zinc nitrate
hexahydrate salt in liquid form for constant precursor concentration. Synthesis done through electrochemical
deposition method using two electrode electrochemical cell with copper substrate acts as working electrode,
platinum as counter electrode, Polycarbonate membrane with 200nm pores as template, for characterization
Scanning Electron Microscopy, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy techniques were used to
obtain morphology analysis of the samples. Result revealed the morphology based on variation in synthesis
parameter also shown limitation on template with random pores and narrow exposure of counter electrode.
Scrutiny process of precursor concentration with respective characterization analysis of prior work was
considered as reference for this work. Keywords: : Synthesis, Template, Electrode potential, Electrode position, Morphology.
Manganese mixed cadmium oxalate (MMCO) crystalline materials were grown from optimized oxalic acid
reinforced silica hydro gel using single test tube gel diffusion technique. Novel MMCO crystals were hard,
transparent, water insoluble and exhibited high corrosion resistance. Fore grounded crystals were
characterized using spectroscopic and analytical techniques. MMCO crystals inborn with cationic
distribution Cd2+:Mn2+ of 1.356:1 and functional units: O-H, C=O, C-O, C-C and Cd:Mn-O in the crystal
armature. MMCO crystal constituted with a chemical formula Cd0.576Mn0.424(C2O4).3H2O, molecular weight
of 230.108 and crystallizes in triclinic geometry. Optical studies reveal absorption in UV region and
maximum transmittance in visible region. Electromagnetic and dielectric studies spotlighted the existence of
displacement current density, dielectric constant of 59.94 and capacitance of 47.90pF. The new crystalline
material ingrains an electrical resistivity of 0.342×107
Ωm and allows very feeble current (few nA) to flow
through them. Indeed, due to spectrum of intrinsic characteristics, MMCO crystal materials find wide
applications in material science and microelectronics. Keywords: : absorption, crystal, dielectric, displacement, silica.
Tall chimney construction of has been possible with building technologies and also with good understanding
of loads acting on them to determine its structural behaviour. The experience gained in the chimney
construction and design over the years the now a-day challenge is to prevent the chimney shell and lining
deterioration due to penetration of flue gases through cracks in the air space. Considering borosilicate blocks
as a lining material, Chimneys have been designed. It has also been reported about repairing the deteriorated
chimney by removing the conventional fire bricks and applying borosilicate block on the chimney shell. The
engineering properties of both the lining materials are compared in this paper. Also, the analytical study has
been done on 12 hypothetical chimneys with the temperature varying at 150o
C and 200o
C and 200m, 150m
and 100m height to gauge the effectiveness borosilicate glass blocks in terms of temperature gradient, forces
induced and material cost. The study shows that borosilicate block can be a suitable replacement of
conventional fire bricks, used as lining for reinforced concrete chimneys, in terms of its application and its
engineering properties that govern structural parameters. Keywords: RCC chimney, Borosilicate glass block lining, Acid proof fire brick lining.
Drying colloidal droplets have a wide range of applications from medical diagnostics to coatings for
industries. This paper explores the effects of the substrate temperature (ranging from 25 to 55 Ԩ) and
various initial concentrations ( (of 1 to 20 wt% of lysozyme in an aqueous solution on its drying and final
dried film state using bright-field optical microscopy. The is divided into three regimes, ultra-concentrated
(20 < ≥ 17 wt%), concentrated (17 < ≥ 9 wt%) and diluted (9 < ≥ 1 wt%). During the drying process,
initially, the fluid front moves slowly and linearly inward followed by a fast, non-linear movement in both
dilute and concentrated regimes. Increasing in these regimes finds that this movement in the later nonlinear region slows down as the front carries and deposits protein molecules until the supply in solution is
exhausted. In the ultra-concentrated regime, the fluid front moves linearly throughout the drying process.
The deposition of protein onto the surface by the fluid front creates the “coffee-ring” and increases with
increasing .A dimple is observed in a central mound-structure, which grow with increase .As the
temperature increases the drying rate increases, reducing the time for convective flow and the deposition of
material at the fluid front. Interestingly, at (T, ) = (55 Ԩ, 20 wt%), the droplet forms the thickest film with
supressed ring formation. The dimple diminishes in the ultra-concentrated regime, whereas it changes to an
expanded spot in some samples of the diluted and concentrated regimes with elevated temperatures. Both
initial concentration and substrate temperature leads to surface tension and temperature gradients across the
droplet, affecting the final dried crack morphological patterns. This study provides insights into protein and protein-substrate interactions driven by temperature and concentration for biomedical and
biosensing applications. Keywords: : drying, droplet, lysozyme, morphology, patterns.
Calitropis Gigantea is an emerging staple fibre for polymer composites. The environmental friendly
nature of this natural fibre has caught attention of the researchers worldwide. Recent trends and
studies have reported the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of the CG reinforced
polymer composites which indicate that the composites can be as proficient as other available
options of composites materials. The development of CG composites can fulfil the dire need of
green technology which is the demand of current situation. Few studies prove that the treated
strands results in high strength of the composites in comparison to the untreated fibers. The treated
fibers were found to be suitable for textile industry but the limitation of difficulty in dyeing due to
high cellulose content still needs attention. Research shows that the higher amount of fibre loading
in composites increases its flexural, tensile and compressive strength but the tribology of these
composites is yet to be discovered more in future. The economic nature of CG fibre composites
along with attractive specific properties makes it eye catchy in current scenario. Keywords: :: Calitropis Gigantea, strand, reinforced polymer composites, flexural, treated fibre
International Journal of Innovative Research in Physics (IJIIP)
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