International Journal of Innovative Research in Physics (IJIIP)
(ISSN Number(Online) - 2687-7902)
(ISSN Number(Print) - 2689-484X)

Volume2 Issue4:

Review on graphene oxide-based nanocomposites for resistive switching applications

Nipom Sekhar Das1, Koustav Kashyap Gogoi1, and Avijit Chowdhury1*

1Organic Electronics and Sensor Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Silchar, Assam-788010, India
Page Number: 1-7

Graphene and graphene oxide (GO) have attracted growing attention in the field of resistive switching memory due to their extraordinary structural, physical and electronic characteristics. Moreover, properties such as excellent charge carrier mobility, high mechanical strength, and outstanding thermal properties make the graphene-based materials suitable for a broad range of other exploitations and many technological applications such as in sensors, energy storage devices, batteries, photocatalysis, electronic devices, supercapacitors etc. The limiting factors such as low storage density and scaling capabilities in silicon-based memories have led the researchers to explore other alternatives for developing the next generation cost effective data storage devices. The article summarises the recent advances in the field of resistive switching memory and tries to focus mainly on the use of graphene-based semiconductor heterostructure devices. The article further includes a brief comparison of the memory performances of graphene/GO nanocomposites with various insulating polymers and semiconducting materials.

Keywords: Graphene, electronic devices, resistive switching, non-volatile.


Study of electrical properties of a few layers of graphene sheets under Ultraviolet and Visible light irradation

Injamul Alam1 ,Kadambinee Sa2, Sonali Das1 , BVRS Subramanyam1, Manoranjan Mandal1, Subhasri Subudhi1, Santosini Patra11, and Dr. Pitamber Mahanandia11*

1Department of Physics & Astronomy, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India
2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India
Page Number: 8-14

Graphene is an excellent 2D material due to its exceptional electrical properties which can be potentially used in optoelectronic. In order to use graphene in optoelectronics, the electrical properties need to be tuned. To tune electrical properties, few-layer graphene sheets (FLGS) prepared by electrochemical method have been used. The prepared FLGS has been characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and Raman Spectroscopy. The optimized FLGS by characterization has been employed to tune the electrical properties in the presence and absence of water drop under ultraviolet and visible light. The obtained current of FLGS thin film is ⁓ 0.8mA whereas; the measured current under ultraviolet light is ⁓ 1.7mA and under visible light ⁓ 1.07mA. However, it has been observed that the measured current has decreased to under ultraviolet ⁓ 0.645mA and visible light ⁓ 0.96mA in the presence of water drop in FLGS film. Therefore, the findings suggest that the electrical properties of FLGS can be tuned for various applications in optoelectronic devices.

Keywords: FLGS, Ultraviolet light, Visible light, Irradiation, Optoelectronic.


Polyaniline/oxide-based core-shell like structured composites for reduction in electromagnetic pollution

Rishi Pal1, Sneh Lata Goyal1*, and Anil Kumar Gupta2

1Department of Physics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, Haryana- 125001, India
2Department of Physics, Samrat Prithviraj Chauhan Government College, Ajmer, Rajasthan-305001, India 125001, India
Page Number: 15-21

Polyaniline (PANI) based composites with manganese dioxide (MnO2, 30 wt.%) and vanadium pentaoxide (V2O5, 30 wt.%) have been synthesized using the in-situ polymerization synthesis route, whereas both the oxides used as filler materials in the polyaniline matrix. The amalgamated composites have been analyzed for morphological investigation and shielding the incident electromagnetic (EM) waves in the frequency range 8.2-12.4 GHz (X-band). PANI/MnO2 and PANI/V2O5 composites are synthesized in core-shell like morphology, whereas PANI act as core while oxide act as the shell. The shielding of EM waves has been investigated in terms of shielding effectiveness (SE). PANI/MnO2 composite exhibits the efficient SE value i.e. ~50 dB as shown in the figure. This higher value of SE is due to the ferromagnetic character of MnO2 particles which increases the dielectric losses in the specimen. Whereas, PANI/V2O5 composite attain the smaller value of SE i.e. ~9 dB, because V2O5 particles are diamagnetic in nature, thus dielectric losses decrease. Moreover, SE decreases with an increase in frequency due to a decrease in dielectric losses. PANI/MnO2 composite has an SE value greater than the minimum requirement for industrial application i.e. 30 dB, thus, PANI/MnO2 composite can be used as EM shielding material, whereas, PANI/V2O5 composite can’t fulfill this requirement.

Keywords: EMI shielding, electromagnetic pollution, PANI, core-shell.


Boswellia sacra leaf extract mediated biosynthesis of ZnO nanoparticles: Characterization, photocatalytic and antibacterial activity

Tahir shah1, 2*, Hatijah Basri1, Mohammed Bahjat ali2

1Faculty of applied science and technology UTHM 86400 Pari Raja Batu pahat, Malaysia
2Applied science department UTAS PO Box 74 Postal code 133 Muscat Oman
Page Number: 22-36

The Boswellia sacra or Olibanum tree has unique herbal properties in the Burseraceae family and has already been considered a versatile material in traditional Arabic medicine. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were synthesized using B. sacra aqueous leaf extract as a mediator in the present study. As a critical reducing and stabilizing agent for ZnO NPs, B. sacra aqueous extract with reducing polysaccharides and phytochemicals have been used. UV-visible spectroscopy has preliminarily confirmed the formation of ZnO NPs. FTIR, XRD, and SEM analyses were used to classify the photosynthesized nanoparticles. The functional group present in the nanoparticles was analyzed using FTIR. X-ray diffraction has been used to validate the particles' crystalline existence. SEM technique determined the nanoparticles' morphology and crystalline phase of the nanoparticles. The enhanced photocatalytic activity for methylene blue as model pollutant dye under solar irradiation was 84% in 100 minutes. The antibacterial activity of ZnO NPs was tested using the agar diffusion technique against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis (gram-positive), and Escherichia coli Pseudomonas aeruginosa (gram-negative) species. ZnO NPs synthesized using B. sacra leaf extract exhibited promising results against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains with a maximum inhibition zone of 15 mm and 14 mm, respectively. In conclusion, the results indicated that the protocol is quick, fast, one-step, eco-friendly, non-toxic, and alternative to physical/chemical traditional methods.

Keywords: Boswellia sacra, Zinc oxide nanoparticles, biosynthesis, antibacterial activity, photocatalyst.


Quantum Computing and Post Quantum Cryptography

Manish Kumar1

1Department of Information Technology, Delhi Technological University Delhi, India
Page Number: 37-51

The present knowledge we had in quantum computer and the most possible architecture of a quantum computer might be able to break RSA 2048 in future. In classical computer two bits represents any one of four bit information whereas in quantum due to superposition it can be represent all four states. For ‘n’ qubits system is analogous to 2n classical bits. Quantum teleportation, quantum entanglement and other makes it possible to break present cryptosystem. Shor’s Algorithm is used for integer factorization which is polynomial time for quantum computer. This can be threat for RSA security. In this paper matlab implementation of Shor’s algorithm is presented. Used classical way for getting period of function because classical computers not engage quantum phenomena. As numbers of iterations grow, probability of getting exact factor of ‘n’ acutely increased. This paper also discusses popular methods for making qubits like Silicon based Qubits in which electron is put inside nano material which is used as a transistor. In Superconducting circuit method insulator is used as a sandwich in between two metal layers. Used by Google, IBM, Intel, Microsoft. In Flux qubits method very small size loop of superconducting metal is used. This paper also discusses Quantum Proof Algorithm like Lattice-based cryptography used concept of good and bad base. In Learning with errors method if we have more equation then variable, it is over defined system. In Code based cryptography some matrixes allow for efficient error correction (good matrix) but most matrix’s does not (bad matrix) concept is used. In Hash based signatures scheme have long signatures or keys, but they are secure. Also discuss Multivariate Quantum proof algorithm. The abstract should contain maximum of 300 words. No abbreviation should be mentioned in the abstract. Give a brief summary of your research work.

Keywords: qubit, quantum computer, cryptography, Shor’s algorithm, quantum proof algorithms.


Development and Analysis of Ultrasonic Welding Process Using FEM Approach for Aluminum and Copper

Pankaj Patil1, Suresh Periyannan1

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Warangal-506004, Telangana, India.
Page Number: 52-61

Ultrasonic welding is a process that uses mechanical vibrations using ultrasonic frequencies. The vibrations are produced by an ultrasonic sonotrode, which is used for joining two thin materials, especially in electronic industries (for applications in battery-making industries). Typically, ultrasonic welding is based on the parameters (frequency range, input pressure/load of the sonotrode, by varying the coefficient of friction between two metal sheets, the thickness of a sheet) while performing the joining process. In this work, the FEA Model-based study is used for analyzing the ultrasonic welding using “Von-Misses stress theory concepts”. The effects of various thickness of the sheet, normal force, coefficient of friction (at different welding conditions) are analyzed while performing the welding process. The temperature variation is studied while using aluminum and copper as thin sheets. This study can be used in the electronic industries for high power ultrasonic welding process, especially using aluminum and copper materials in the form of electrodes, sheets.

Keywords: Ultrasonic welding, finite element method (FEM), ultrasonic sonotrode, temperature dependent yield strength, Von Mises stress theory.


Estimation of Richardson Constant for Natural Organic dye Based Cells using Orange-lemon and Apple-green

Arnab Kanti Karan1*, N. B. Manik1

1Condensed Matter Physics Research Center, Department of Physics Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032, India
Page Number: 62-67

The Richardson constant is one of the most important parameters to analyze the current conduction process in the metal organic Schottky contact. But there are very few reports available on the estimation of effective Richardson constant for the natural dyes. In this work, we have estimated the values of effective Richardson constant for two different natural dyes namely Orange-Lemon and Apple-Green. A thin organic film of these herbal dyes was sandwiched in between Indium Tin Oxide-coated glass and a Copper plate by spin coating technique. The current-voltage-temperature response of the cells was investigated at a temperature interval of 303K to 333K using Keithley 2400 source meter. The effective Richardson constants for these dyes have been estimated which are 110 x 10-3 A/cm2 K2 , and 118 x 10-3 A/cm2 K2 for OL and AG dye respectively, which is different from the conventional value of 120 A/cm2 K2 . These values will help us to study different electrical parameters for these natural dyes.

Keywords: Natural dye, Schottky contact, Richardson constant.


Design and performance analysis of Multi-linear Horn for Ultrasonic machining application using FEM approach

Dhonde Krishnakumar Gunaji1 and Suresh Periyannan1

1`Department of Mechanical engineering, National Institute of Technology, Warangal-506004.
Page Number: 68-76

This work reports an ultrasonic horn design and development for improving the performance of ultrasonic machining process in terms of better material removal rate for the same input conditions. The suitable operating frequency range (20 kHz-25 kHz) of the horn is analyzed with the help of finite element approach using the Ansys and for modelling Creo software is used. Typically, the machining tool vibrates around 10- 20 μm, but for effective machining requires the more magnitude or intensity (80-200 μm) of vibration within this frequency range. Performance of ultrasonic horn mainly depends on the geometrical aspects and type of material used. In this work, we focus on the ultrasonic horn with an innovative design compared to earlier reported works to obtain the maximum magnification factor within permissible stress limits. The standard criteria “stresses below the permissible limit and mode shapes at different resonance frequencies (modal analysis)” are considered while designing the horn for avoiding the tool and horn failures during machining. The optimum numbers of elements are identified to mitigate computational time based on the optimum mesh criteria. In this study, we have analysed the equivalent stresses, magnification factor (ratio of output to input amplitude) of the horn by harmonic response analysis, which can be used to arrive at the effective machining processes. Finally, the magnification factor is increased within the safe stress limit using our innovative horn design. Newly, designed horn’s performance is compared and validated with the earlier reported literature at a similar input parameters or loading conditions.

Keywords: Ultrasonic Machining (USM), Multi-linear stepped Horn/Sonotrode, FEA, Horn design, Magnification/Amplification Factor.


Energy Eigenvalues of Quantum Anharmonic Oscillators: Exact Expression for the Pure ૃ࢞૛ Oscillators and a Simple Expression for ࢞ૃ ൅ ૛࢞૛࢓ Oscillators

Chandra Das1*, Dhiranjan Roy2

1 Department of Physics, Netaji Nagar Day College, Kolkata-700092
1 Department of Physics, Netaji Nagar Day College, Kolkata-700092
Page Number: 77-81

We propose an exact expression for the energy eigenvalues of the pure ɉݔଶ௠ quantum anharmonic oscillators. The only information needed for the purpose is ܭ଴ ሺ௠ǡ௡ሻ , which is the first term of strong- coupling expansion for oscillator with potential ݔߣଶ௠ for the nth excited state. We then propose simple expression for the eigenvalues of the ݔଶ ൅ ݔߣଶ௠ oscillators which reproduce both the ground state and excited states energies of these oscillators with a fairly good accuracy. The present formula is found to better reproduce the energy eigenvalues than those calculated by earlier authors.

Keywords: Anharmonic Oscillator, Quartic, sextic and Octic Oscillators, Weak and strong coupling expansion.


Image processing algorithms for biospeckle analysis of almond seed

Chhanda Koley1, Rittik Das 1, and Anil Kumar Nirala1*

1Department of Physics, IIT (ISM) Dhanbad, Dhanbad-826004
Page Number: 82-86

Investigation of magnetic switching of nanoscale single MRAM cells of different shapes and sizes is imperative for their applications in future magnetic memory devices. To this end, we have investigated the magnetic switching mechanism of nanoscale single MRAM cells of two different shapes with varying lateral aspect ratios by computational micromagnetic simulation. We have analysed how various parameters such as the coercive field, remanence and saturation field were affected by the variation in magnetic field. We have also analysed the change in shape of the hysteresis loops of the various samples. The magnetization reversal states were simulated to justify the spatial coherence of magnetization switching. As a result, the cells with higher aspect ratio show the Py and Fe layers forming antiparallel states in the plateau similar to synthetic antiferromagnets. As we reduce the aspect ratio, more complex quasi-uniform magnetic states are observed which are even more complicated for elliptical cells. The rectangular cell with the highest aspect ratio of 2.5 shows the most coherent and predictable switching behaviour, showing its suitability for the application of MRAM cells.